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    Scottish Missionary and Explorer

    David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was obviously a Scottish physician, pioneer, Christian missionary, African explorer and anti-slavery crusader who became the most popular British heroes with the late 19th-century, Victorian era through his pursuit to reach new peoples inside interior of Africa through “Christianity, commerce, and civilization”.

    Livingstone advocated to the establishment of British commercial trade, colonial expansion and religious missions in central Africa that will displace the slave trade performed by the Portuguese.

    His explorations ultimately, contributed towards the “Scramble for Africa” and African nationalism.

    Early Background

    David Livingstone was considered one of seven children who lived in one room within the mill city of Blantyre, Scotland, inside a tenement building to the workers of any cotton factory for the banks with the River Clyde.

    In 1823, in the age of ten, he was employed from the cotton mill of Henry Monteith & Co. in Blantyre Works where he with the exceptional brother John worked 14-hour workdays as piecers, tying broken cotton threads around the spinning machines.


    His zeal for education inspired him to wait Blantyre village school, along with mill children, despite his long work hours, to increase his future job prospects.

    Livingstone’s work experiences inside the cotton mill from ages 10 to 26 to back up his poor family taught him to persevere against all odds and the man developed a natural empathy effortlessly who labor and endure.

    An appeal by British and American churches in 1834 for qualified medical missionaries in China made Livingstone determined to pursue that profession while still working inside mill.

    He began lowering costs to enter Anderson’s University, Glasgow in 1836 (now University of Strathclyde), together with attending Greek and theology lectures on the University of Glasgow.

    In 1838, he was accepted through the London Missionary Society (LMS) for be employed in China and began studies in medical practice, midwifery, and botany for the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School along with Ongar, Essex to build up his missionary training.

    He qualified being a Licentiate with the Faculty (now Royal College) of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow on 16 November, 1840 and appeared an Honorary Fellow on the Faculty, on 5 January 1857.

    Early Influences

    The Opium War were only available in 1839 and lasted until 1842 which made China missions difficult.

    A speech in 1840, by Robert Moffat, Scottish, Congregationalist missionary in southern Africa and his awesome future father-in-law, convinced him that Africa was where he should serve.

    He seemed to be influenced by abolitionist, T.F. Buxton’s arguments the African slave trade may be destroyed over the influence of “legitimate trade” along with the spread of Christianity.

    On November 20, 1840, he was ordained being a missionary and hang sail for Cape Town South Africa, then arranged for Kuruman station where Moffat had worked on the list of Bechuana people.

    Expeditions in Africa

    David Livingstone undertook three major African expeditions and through his travels, he designed a reputation like a dedicated Christian, a courageous explorer, plus a dedicated antislavery advocate.

    He treated the natives with respect, as well as the tribes he visited, returned his respect with faith and loyalty.

    In January, 1845, David Livingstone married Mary Moffat (12 April 1821 – 27 April 1862) who has been the daughter of Scottish missionary, Robert Moffat.

    Mary spent her formative years at Kuruman station and her familiarity with several African languages helped their missionary travels throughout the African interior.

    First Expedition

    In 1849, he traveled to Lake Ngami with William Cotton Oswell and reached the top of the Zambezi River for your first time in 1851.

    In 1853, he made his purpose clear: “I shall throw open a path in the interior, or perish.”

    From 1853-56 his expedition crossed southern Africa everywhere where he discovers the spectacular waterfall that he named Victoria Falls to honor Queen Victoria in 1855.

    Livingstone returned to England in 1856 and received a hero’s welcome, a gold medal from your Royal Geographic Society, an honorary doctorate from Oxford University as well as a private audience with Queen Victoria.

    Second Expedition

    On his second expedition, Livingstone discovers Lake Malawi and reached the mouth on the Zambezi River as to what is now Mozambique about the Indian Ocean in May, 1856.

    The Zambezi River linked the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique who have been supplying slaves to Brazil, who therefore sold these to Cuba plus the United States.

    Following the death of his wife in 1862 plus the loss of his assistants, Livingstone uttered his famous quote: “I am able to go anywhere, provided or not it’s forward.”

    Third Expedition

    The third expedition of 1866-73, he explored central Africa to try to find the source with the Nile.

    On locating the Lualaba River he mistakenly concluded it turned out the high part on the Nile River.

    Henry Morton Stanley

    From 1866, Livingstone lost experience of the outside world and also the London Daily Telegraph and New York Herald created transatlantic venture to send out journalist, Henry Morton Stanley to Africa to locate him.

    Stanley found Livingstone alive near Lake Tanganyika in October 1871, greeting him using the now famous quote, “Dr Livingstone, I presume?”

    With these four words, David Livingstone became immortal.

    Livingstone answered: “Yes, and I feel thankful that I am here to invite you.”

    On March 14, 1872, Stanley departed for England pleading unsuccessfully, for Livingstone to send back with him.


    Livingstone became increasingly ill and took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside from internal bleeding caused by dysentery and malaria on May 1, 1873, in the age of 60, in Chief Chitambo’s Village, near Lake Bangweulu, North Rhodesia (now Zambia).

    Britain wanted Livingstone’s body so it can have a proper ceremony, even so the tribe cut his heart out and hang a note about the body in spite of this, “You might have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!”

    His heart was buried within a Mvula tree at the spot where he died with the exceptional body was mummified

    His body with the exceptional journal, were carried spanning a thousand miles (1,600 km) by his loyal attendants, Chuma and Susi, to your coastal city of Bagamoyo to get returned to Britain.

    Henry Stanley would be a pallbearer at Livingstone’s funeral.

    His remains were interred at Westminster Abbey using the inscription on his tomb reading, “Brought by faithful hands over land and sea,”

    His exploration journey’s vastly increased geographical familiarity with central and southern Africa and enabled large regions being mapped.

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    Related American Challenges!

    President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in describing a variety of challenges, this nation, faced, inside years, coming – up, – to, and including World War II, declared, as part of his first Inaugural Address, in 1933, The only thing we will need to fear is fear – itself. It seems, today, it is important, the united states should be fearing, will be the escalation inside the number of hate – crimes, against various ethnic, racial, and religious groups! Although, under – the – surface, there has always been, some prejudice/ bias, and, even, hatred, many of us, predominantly, remember, several, localized groups, for example Ku Klux Klan, John Birch Society, etc. During America’s involvement, in this war, we witnessed, perhaps, the highest shame, as being a nation, inside the 20th Century, if we placed, a great number of Japanese – Americans, in internment camps! Although, many people, love to proceed, with, a diploma of revisionist history, and, conveniently, disregarding, it took, a Civil War, to grant freedom, to slaves (people – of – color), and near another century, after – that, to generate the landmark, Civil Rights Law, portion of the law, of the land! We also, shamelessly, treated, and continue, treating, Native – Americans, as 2nd – Class citizens! With, that planned, this article attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, 5 current, hate – related, challenges, the United States, faces, today.

    1. Anti – semitism: We are, often, reminded, that anti – semitism, in america, carries on, bear – its – ugly – head! It seems, whenever, someone, believes/ perceives, he’s being mistreated, etc, Jews end up being the scapegoat! Even, as soon as the atrocities in the Holocaust, we continue, witnessing, neo – Nazis, who make use of anti – Jewish slogans, in addition to symbols, of hatred, for example the swatztik, and also attacks on certain individuals, for their religion!
    2. Systemic racism: Those, declaring, systemic racism, doesn’t exist, inside United States, they’re, either, in – denial, and/ or, burying – their – head, from the sand! We witness this, in, nearly, every facet of life, and government, including, apparently, police/ police officers, how Courts treat people, professions and payments, etc. How often, have we witnessed, somebody, shot, or killed by police, apparently, for, being – Black?
    3. Xenophobia: How many atrocities, etc, have we witnessed, within the name of, xenophobia? Fear of foreigners/ outsiders, will not excuse, hate crimes!
    4. Vitriol/ polarizing rhetoric: Many believe, haters are becoming, entitled and enabled, through the reckless rhetoric/ vitriol, with the former, President with the United States, Donald Trump! His statements, about, those, trying to immigrate, etc, together with several other, minority groups, and attracting polarization, and adversarial relationships, rather than trying to bring – people, together, to the greater good, to realize, some type, of meeting – of – the – minds, seems to have made, the amount, and harshness of hate – related, crimes, far – worse!
    5. The politics of hatred: The politics of hatred, looks like it’s, a calculated strategy, and action, used, by certain politicians, who feel, it serves their personal/ political agenda, and/ or, self – interest!

    Wake up, America, and prioritize, unifying, for that common good, instead of, permitting, this rise in, hate – related incidents! If, for no reason demand this, our nation, will miss its right, to declare, we are a symbol of rights and freedoms, etc!

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    Debunking 5 Political Myths/ Lies

    Why do a lot of Americans, apparently, equate their opinions, wishes, or desires, with real facts? If you are like a great many others, chances are, you will be, sick – and – tired, of constantly, listening to countless people, who express their opinion, and/ or, that relating to some politicians, or people in the media, to be, reality! One might believe, the guy can change someone’s minds, by showing them, the veracity, but, unfortunately, normally, many appear to refuse to take into account, anything, which doesn’t directly, align, with reality! With, that under consideration, this article attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, 5 political myths/ lies, and try to, dispute, and/ or, debunk, them.

    1. Trump won/ Stop The Steal/ January 6th wasn’t a threat!: Although, the fact of the 2020 Presidential election, was, Trump lost the election, by over 7 million popular votes, through a significant amount, within the Electoral College, and, as soon as the former President’s over – 60 legal challenges, and lots of recounts, rather then demonstrating, the election, was stolen, clearly indicated, it turned out as fair, as probably, possible, he, and his awesome core supporters, continued claiming, it turned out stolen! Then, following your storming on the Capitol, on January 6th, where, many videos, clearly, showed, a transparent, danger, through the insurrectionists, chanting threats, they resorted to make an effort to use, revisionist – history, to, minimize the events, even refusing, to consent to, a bipartisan commission, to look into, and, hopefully, prevent this, from occurring, again! Doesn’t it, seem strange, this behavior, and perspective, still exists, over 7 months, following election, inspite of the clear – cut, evidence/ proof, and, numerous, always cling – to, these distorted beliefs?
    2. Voting Rights battle: For a nation, which states, proudly, we’ve got the fairest system, associated with voting rights, etc, don’t you think seem, contrary, for the refusal, of several public officials (nearly, every, elected Republican), to dicuss – out, against the straightforward attempts, made, by a number of states, to really make it more difficult for a few, to vote? The recent, refusal, from the Senate, to take into account, clear legislation, to handle and consider, these attempts, with the filibuster, is, little – more, when compared to a strategy, to restore more difficult, for anyone, more probable, to opt for Democrats, so as to!
    3. Gun safety controls/ Common sense: Since, we register cars, and require drivers licenses, don’t you think make sense, to perform, so, for the very – least, regarding gun ownership, etc? Why would anyone, need, an assault weapon? Shouldn’t one, who wishes to own a gun, be needed, to pass through, a history check, and demonstrate, she has the proficiency/ skills, to address one, safely? Some, rather, make an effort to wrap – themselves, up, with what they claim, for being the 2nd Amendment, focusing, about the part, which, states, The right to bear arms, although, they do not, mention, it called state’s rights, to safeguard themselves, against foreign threats, having a militia! Isn’t it high time, we used sound judgment? How many more must die, before perform something?
    4. Infrastructure issues: More over a dozen nations, use a far – better, infrastructure (fewer issues, and challenges), than, ours! Many areas of this nation, have deteriorating, roads, bridges, and tunnels, especially, in some from the older, larger cities! We must address, both, the traditional, challenges, and also relevant, sustainable ones, in the future (for instance, more – widespread, access to your Internet, in spite of one’s income, etc)!
    5. Climate Change/ Environment: How does it help generations to come, to, simply, deny, the contests, involved, and, need to deal with Climate Change realities, sooner, in lieu of later? Isn’t it our responsibility, to our children and grandchildren, to exit a planet, with climate and water? Yet, many politicians, don’t consider, taking any action, even though it is needed, and overdue!

    Wake up, America, and demand, those your elect, are responsive to uncomplicated, needs, priorities, etc, rather then their perceived, personal/ political agenda, and/ or, self – interest! Although, we are going to always, witness some, who prefer to limit their experience facts, everyone else, cannot permit that, to overwhelm our nation, in to the future!

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    Difference Between Fact & Fiction

    What is a media company?

    A media company is an entity who disseminates information in various one of many possible forms including although not limited to; print, radio, television, outdoor advertising or through social support systems. For many years it cost to buy your message seem to others however with the invention with the internet and internet sites, you are able to obtain your message out without cost. With the invent from the internet we showed the world to more details but at what cost? Now anyone can be their very own media company and broadcast whatever information they need with practically no consequences.

    Prior to the web if a company or individual wanted to acquire their message out they can need to buy ad’ space in a newspaper, radio, television or outdoor media. The costs were too prohibitive for someone to however, these types of media so they really were not able for getting their message seem to others. A company who can afford these sorts of advertising put on the extender responsibly from when they were spending money. The media company also helped control the content by money content. They would not allow advertisers to distribute false or misleading information. So there was clearly a system of controls allowing the individual to take the advertising at face value and still have some faith in what it’s all about.

    Since the net and myspace, anyone can afford for getting their message in front of an individual. For virtually no cost, you can have a website with a website, web 2 . 0 page, blog, video content and live broadcasts. This is a big shift within the market that permits people like me to have my message over to people like you. This is a victory for that small people and firms but the larger companies still need their advantage of their favor. The consumers follows and see them more frequently than they’ll see me. They will have always more money to waste on advertising and SEO than I do. But it won’t mean I shouldn’t still make an effort to get my message out.

    With everyone obtaining the opportunity to acquire their message across we aren’t all playing with the same rules. The larger companies investing in space have to assume responsibilty and held accountable for his or her message but a person might just go ahead and post something with virtually no repercussions for message. Sure, they could lose followers or get flagged for posting racist or misleading information but which doesn’t stop them from posting it again or elsewhere. I am all for your First Amendment and Free Speech but we ought to be smarter consumers of knowledge. We can’t just say well I watched it on the world wide web so it should be true.

    Caveat Emptor (Buyer beware) continues to be true when we’re not buying anything. The buyer/consumer is solely liable for checking the standard and sustainability on the goods or information. I am sure a great deal of you recall the Brady Bunch episode where Greg buys an auto and his dad explains the principals of Caveat Emptor.

    Is it the responsibility in the media company to test all the details posted on his or her form of media or is he or she just presenting the woking platform for us to write? I guess you can say when they are paying to promote or distribute information and the working platform is receiving money they should have some accountability for what exactly is posted on the platform. In this point in time of instant information, it can be tough to figure out what exactly is accurate and was is misleading. But we’re also crossing precisely what is news and what’s advertising. Advertising has regulations on content and stipulations on false advertising like bait and switch, but news stories are very different. There are the reality of a story including who, what, when, why and where however there are opinions. These days opinions, personal beliefs and/or company priorities become part from the stories. When this happens the stories become biased and lean within a certain direction. This is where the client has to be mindful of where these are receiving their information.

    In the worst cases, news outlets gives alternative facts or fake news. Certain consumers believe these content articles and will spread them along in case they get enough traction people begin to believe these are true even when you’ll find clear facts to show they’re not. If you tell a lie often enough people commence to believe it for example the person telling the lie.

    How can we stop false information from being broadcast, be simple answer is for no reason. We do not regulate our news! It isn’t the media companies’ job to manage news and decide what exactly is fact or fiction. As consumers we should ask questions and call people and firms out when these are not telling the truth. The bottom line is we should be more educated consumers and fact check our news. We ought to find a source that’s going to be truthful and offer us together with the 5 W’s (Who, What, When, Where, Why & How) of journalism without bias!